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The Lands Of Xina
Combat Rules

The Basic Flow

Determine Initiative

Choose an Action


Determine the Outcome

Quick Reference


Calculating Damage

A combatant's Strength, weapon, attack type, and attack roll all affect how much damage is caused by a single attack. Strength determines how much base damage is caused by Thrust and Swing attacks. Weapon and attack type modify this value. A weapon's Crushing (Cr) and Cutting (Cut) damage modifiers apply to Swing attacks, while its Impaling (Imp) modifier applies to Thrust attacks. Damage is reduced if an attack doesn't connect fully with the target. An attack roll with less than 3 successes inflicts only a fraction of its potential damage. When an attack roll succeeds by 6 or more, the combatant scores a critical hit which may cause significantly more damage than normal. Many ranged weapons have a maximum amount of damage they can inflict in a single, non-critical hit.

For example, a combatant with STR 12 has a base Thrust damage of 5, and a base Swing damage of 8. He carries a bastard sword. This weapon has a Cutting modifier of Sw+2 and an Impaling modifier of Thr+1. If he rolls 3 successes for a full hit, he can do 10 Cutting or 7 Impaling damage. If he rolls only 1 success on his attack roll, he can do 5 Cutting or 3 Impaling damage. The target's Damage Resistance (DR) is subtracted from this number.

When a weapon can do more than one type of damage, it is important for the combatant to take the target's armor into account. Several types of armor have a PD or DR adjustment which differs for Crushing, Cutting, and Impaling attacks.

Base Damage For Strength

STThrustSwing STThrustSwing STThrustSwing STThrustSwing
400 1046 16714 221124
511 1157 17816 231226
622 1258 18817 241228
733 13610 19919 251330
834 14611 201020 261432
945 15713 211022 271434

A punch delivers Thrust-2 crushing damage.

Weapon Damage Modifiers

See Melee and Ranged weapons on the equipment list to determine their damage, accuracy, and range.

Attack Roll Damage Adjustment

Attack succeeds by:

0: 25% of normal damage
1: 50% of normal damage
2: 75% of normal damage
3-5: 100% of normal damage
6+: Roll on critical hit table

Round down. Cutting or impaling attacks do not round below 1.

Armor and Shields

A target's PD is equal to the PD of any armor worn. Innate PD only applies when armor is not worn. If armor is layered, only the highest PD value applies. The PD of a shield only applies to attacks coming in from the forward side hex adjacent to the shield arm. Magical PD adds to the target's total PD, in addition to any innate, armor, or shield protection.

A target's Damage Resistance is equal to the sum of their innate DR, armor DR, and magical DR.

A different type of armor can be worn at each hit location - this is referred to as piecemeal armor. When attacking a foe wearing piecemeal armor, determine the hit location. His PD and DR depend on the type of armor worn at that location. Magical protection affects all hit locations.

See Armor and Helms & Shields in the equipment list for the PD and DR values.

A shield can only be used with single-handed weapons.

Rate of Attack

A round of combat lasts 3 seconds. Most weapons can attack once per round.
Two-handed weapons, polearms and flails can be used to attack every other round. If used every round, the attacker has a -3 penalty to hit. This penalty is reduced by 1 for each point of ST the wielder has above the minimum required.
1½-handed weapons can normally attack every round. If the combatant fails his attack roll by more than 3, and his Strength is not at least 2 higher than the requirement, he must spend the next round readying the weapon.
Most ranged weapons can be fired once per round, if the combatant's skill with the weapon is greater than or equal to the weapon's Snap Shot (SS) rating. Otherwise, the combatant must spend one round aiming and the next firing to avoid a -3 attack roll penalty.
Darts, daggers, small knives, and short bows can be fired twice per round, if the combatant's skill with the weapon is greater than or equal to the weapon's Snap Shot (SS) rating. When using a Ranged Rapid Attack maneuver, they can be fired three times in one round.
Crossbows can be fired once every other round. The Ranged Rapid Attack maneuver can increase this to once per round, however no aiming or called shots are allowed.
If a combatant is carrying two melee weapons, he can attack with both in the same round as a Two-Weapon Attack.


Missile Combat
Attack - Move up to 1 hex, then attack. If the weapon skill is less than the Snap Shot value for that weapon, and the previous round was not spent aiming, the attack is at -3.
Ranged Rapid Attack - If your skill with the weapon is equal to or greater than its Snap Shot, you can fire twice per round at the same target. The second shot is at a -1 to hit penalty, and cannot be a called shot. Any bonuses for aiming apply to the first shot only. You cannot use an active defense this round.
Pop-Up Attack - Move from behind cover, then attack. -2 to hit, plus -3 Snap Shot penalty if appropriate.
Opportunity Fire - Wait, then fire on a foe entering the targeted hex. -2 to hit if watching 1 hex, -4 if watching forward 3 hexes, -5 if watching all hexes in a straight line. Additional -2 to hit if a PER roll is made to check for a valid target, and a -3 snap shot penalty if appropriate.
Aim - Move up to ½ MV, then aim at one target or hex. You cannot move if aiming for consecutive rounds. If your skill is equal to or greater than the weapon's Snap Shot, +1 to hit per round of aiming, otherwise +1 per round after the first. The maximum cumulative aiming bonus is +3.
Reload - Load a crossbow, draw another thrown weapon, etc.

Melee Combat
Attack - Move up to ½ MV, then make a single normal attack.
All Out Attack - Move up to ½ MV, then attack. You cannot use an active defense this round. A single attack is made at a +4 skill bonus, or for +2 damage.
Wild Swing - Attack a target at your side or rear, or while moving. -5 to hit penalty or current darkness penalty, whichever is worse. You may not aim for specific hit locations.
Two-Weapon Attack - Attack a target with two weapons, one in each hand. A skill roll to hit must be made for each weapon independently. The rolls are at -4 if two medium weapons are used, or -1 if two small weapons are used. For mixed types, the medium weapon is a -4 and the small weapon is at -2 to hit. An off-hand penalty of -4 applies to one weapon unless you have the Ambidexterity trait.
Feint - Roll a contest of weapon skill vs. the target's shield, hand weapon, or unarmed combat skill. Successes subtract from their active defense next round, a critical failure adds 1 to it. You cannot feint unless the target can see you. A feint does not unready a weapon, and cannot come before a ranged or Rapid Attack.
All Out Charge - Move up to MV, then attack. You cannot use an active defense this round. You must enter the target's hex and roll DX to avoid tripping if any bad footing is crossed along the way. The target gets a +2 bonus to Dodge. You can make a single attack at -1 skill, a single attack at -3 skill and +2 damage, a single attack at -3 skill followed by a slam, or a feint at -3 skill followed by a slam.
Shield Bash - Move up to 1 hex, then bash. Roll Shield skill to inflict thrust or crushing damage. The target may dodge or block normally, or parry at -2 with a medium or large weapon. Spiked shields do +1 crush damage.
Wait - Move up to 1 hex, wait until someone enters a hex, then attack normally. Roll a contest of weapon skills to determine who attacks first.
Ready Weapon - Move up to 1 hex, then ready a weapon. It can be used to parry this round.
Ready Shield - The number of rounds required to ready a shield from the ground or your back is equal to its PD.

Unarmed Combat
Unarmed Attack - Move up to 1 hex, then attack. Punch (DX, Boxing, Brawling), Kick (DX-2, Boxing-1, Brawling-2), or Bite (DX). A punch does thrust-2 crushing, a kick does thrust crushing, and a bite does 1d-4 crushing. +1 crush damage for heavy boots or brass knuckles. Add 1/10 Brawling or 1/5 Boxing skill (rounded down) to damage.
Slam - You may only slam when first entering a target's hex. Roll a DX contest. +2 bonus if entering from the side or +4 from behind. +2 if the target is not standing, +2 if you are running, -2 if the target is running, +2 with a medium or large shield, and -2 if the target has a medium or large shield. Add 1/10 Boxing skill (round down). The loser is knocked down unless successfully braced. The winner must roll ST to avoid falling down if the loser does. You can keep moving and not fall down on a critical success. A slam does no damage, but causes stun if the target is knocked down.
Grapple - No MV, you must be in target's hex. You can grab the target's weapon arm, or a medium or large weapon. Win a DX contest to grab. Win a ST contest to force the target to fall, or to take his weapon. +3 to DX contest if both hands are used, and +3 if the target is kneeling or lying down. Add 1/10 Boxing skill (round down).
Takedown - No MV, you must be in the target's hex. The target must be standing and already grappled. Roll your ST, DX, or Boxing (best score) against his ST. If you win, he falls in the same or adjacent hex of your choice, and loses his grip if he was holding you. If you lose, you suffer the same effects.
Flying Tackle - Full MV plus one hex. The target may attempt to dodge unless being tackled from behind; if he dodges, you fall to the ground. If not dodged, roll a ST contest as for a Slam. +2 roll if you move more than one hex toward your foe, or are running from last round. -2 roll if your foe moves more than one hex toward you or is running from last round. +2 roll if you have a medium or large shield, -2 if he has a medium/large shield, +2 if you tackle from behind, -2 if he fails to dodge. You automatically fall down. If you succeed by more than 4, you automatically grapple your foe.
Break Free - No MV, only used when you are grappled. Win a ST contest to escape. Add 1/10 Boxing skill (round down). Your foe is at +5 if you are pinned with one hand, or if you are not pinned and he is using both hands. Your foe is at +10 if he pinned you using both hands - in this case you can only try to break free every fourth round. If you succeed, you may immediately move 1 hex in any direction.

All Out Defense
Multiple Foe Defense - Parry two attacks, block two attacks, or dodge any number of attacks. You can parry an unlimited number of times with the Fencing skill, at a -1 skill per foe. Fencers trained with a dagger as an off-hand weapon can attack after one parry at ½ Knife skill.
Single Foe Defense - Move up to 1 hex, parry 2 attacks, block 2 attacks, or dodge any number of attacks. The first active defense has a +4 bonus. You can parry an unlimited number of times with the Fencing skill. Fencers trained with a dagger as an off-hand weapon can attack after one parry at ½ Knife skill.
Brace For Impact - Move up to 1 hex, then brace. You can block with a shield but not dodge or parry. Knockback is reduced by 1' per success on a ST check. Make a successful DX check to avoid falling down.
Retreat - +3 to any attempt to block, dodge, or parry the first attack by a foe. You cannot retreat while stunned.
Move - Full MV, +1 hex if running after the first round.

Active Defense

Parry - Roll ½ melee weapon skill, 2/3 quarterstaff, or 2/3 Fencing skill when using a thrusting sword (round down). You can parry 1 melee attack, 2 with a quarterstaff or the Fencing skill, 2 using Single or Multiple Foe Defense, or 3 using Advanced Single or Multiple Foe Defense. You have a -1 penalty to parry using a knife, dagger, or other very small weapon. You have a +3 bonus to parry the first attack while retreating. Thrown weapons are parried at -1, thrown knives are parried at -2, and flails are parried at -4. Your AD value is equal to 2 + successes rolled. On a critical failure, roll on the Critical Miss table.
Block - Roll your Shield skill. Your shield must be ready. You can block one attack. If you perform a swing attack in the same round, you can only block against attacks from the front hex, or the front side adjacent to the shield arm. If you perform a thrusting attack, you can block any of the forward hexes. If you perform no attacks, you can block against any hex but the rear. Your AD value is equal to 2 + successes rolled. If a Block succeeds on the target number, roll 3d6 against the shield's HT. A failed roll indicates that the shield broke. On a critical failure, the shield becomes an entanglement on the defensive arm until you spend a round removing or readying it.
Dodge - Roll against DX/2 minus encumbrance level, round down. Add 1/10 Boxing skill (round down) against bare-handed or thrusting attacks. You cannot dodge rear attacks or ones you are not aware of. Your AD value is equal to 2 + successes rolled. On a critical failure, you fall down.
Acrobatic Dodge - You can only use this against melee attacks, and only once per round. Roll Acrobatics at -1. Your AD is equal to the number of successes rolled, or -2 on a failed roll.

Maneuver Modifiers

Bad footing: -1 or -2 to attack, overcome by aiming, no defense penalty
Can't hear: -1 to -4
Darkness: -1 to -9
Fear: -1 to -10, +1 if seen at distance, +1 if forewarned, +5 in heat of battle, -1 if isolated, -1 to -5 for horde, -2 if first appears in face, +1 if small, +1 to +3 if familiar, -1 to -2 if other victims nearby.
Lost sight of target last round: all aiming bonuses are lost.

Hit Location
Attack roll penalties for called shots to specific locations:
Head -5, brain -7, neck -7, mouth -8, eyes -9, eyes through helm -10
Weapon/near arm -2, shield/far arm -4, hand -5
Leg -2, knee -4, foot -5
Body 0, vital organ -3, heart -8
If the target failed a bare-handed parry, you can chose to hit his arm.

Personal (Attacking)
Attacker's position: crouching -2 attack, kneeling/sitting -2 attack, crawling/lying down (ranged weapons only) -4 attack
Attacking off-hand: -4
Attacking on the move: -1 walking, -2 running; triple for crossbows or bows.
Close combat: -2 (except for hand-to-hand)
Crippled: -2 PD for arm, forced position change for crippled foot/leg, -5/-10 for damaged eyes.
Mounted: -1 per mount's MV with successful riding roll, double penalty if the roll is failed, no penalty if using a mounted combat skill
Stunned: -4 to all rolls (usually caused by taking HT/2 damage in the previous round)
Unfamiliar weapon: -2
Wound shock: Check for damage penalties

Personal (Defending)
Angle of attack: -2 defense if attack is from the side
Casting spell: roll Will-3 to maintain casting if an active defense is used
Elevation: -1 defense if melee attacker is 4' higher, -2 if 5' higher, or -3 if 6' higher
Missile Attack at Shield Hex: add your shield's PD against missile attacks striking from the forward side hex adjacent to the shield arm
Position: -2 defense if kneeling, -3 if crawling or lying down
Retreating: +3 to dodge, block, or parry the first attack each round
Surprised: use only armor PD, shield cannot be brought to bear
Wound shock: Check for damage penalties

Range & Speed
A weapon's accuracy value reduces the range penalty.

RangeSpeedAdjust.   RangeSpeedAdjust.
1' +5   110 yds100 mph-7
2' +3   145 yds (91 m)150 mph-8
1 yd +2   185 yds200 mph-9
2 yds 0   230 yds300 mph-10
5 yds10 mph-1   280 yds450 mph-11
10 yds15 mph-2   330 yds700 mph-12
20 yds20 mph-3   380 yds1,000 mph-13
35 yds30 mph-4   430 yds1,500 mph-14
55 yds45 mph-5   480 yds (¼ mile)2,000 mph-15
80 yds70 mph-6   530 yds3,000 mph-16

Cover: head only exposed -5, head and shoulders -4, half body -3, light cover (ie: bushes) -2, behind someone (per whole person) -4, lying prone -4, prone behind light cover -5, prone behind cover with head down -7, crouching or kneeling -2
Elevation: Ranged attacks, -1 yd effective range for every 2 yds lowered target elevation, +1 yd range for +1 elevation
Erratic movement: swerving side to side ( MV fwd) -1, massive evasion (almost no MV fwd) -2, rat running across floor -3, hummingbird or equally unpredictable target -4
Obstructions: -1 to -5

Critical Hits & Misses

Critical Miss
Roll 3d6...
3-4 or 17-18: Weapon breaks, if not using a solid metal weapon (IE: crowbar).
5: Hit self for ½ damage, if not an impaling or ranged attack.
6: Hit self for ¼ damage, if not an impaling or ranged attack.
7 or 13: Lost balance, no more actions and -2 defense until next round.
8 or 12: Weapon turns in hand, spend next round readying it before using again.
9-11: Dropped weapon, fragile weapon may break if dropped.
14: Weapon flies 1d yards from your hand, or missile weapon drops.
15: Strained shoulder, weapon arm is "crippled" for 30 minutes.
16: Melee weapon wielder falls down, or ranged weapon user loses balance.

Critical Hit
Roll 3d6...
3 or 18: If torso blow, target is knocked unconscious and rolls HT every 30 minutes to recover, otherwise x3 damage.
4 or 13: Blow bypasses armor and does normal damage.
5 or 17: x3 damage.
6 or 16: x2 damage.
7: Normal damage; foe is stunned this round, and subsequent rounds until he makes a Will roll.
8 or 12: Blow hitting arm, leg, hand, or foot cripples it for 6 rounds if not damaging enough to actually cripple, otherwise damage is normal.
9-11: Normal damage.
14: Blow hitting arm, leg, hand, or foot cripples it for 6 rounds if not damaging enough to actually cripple, otherwise x2 damage.
15: Enemy drops weapon and takes x2 damage.

Optional Rules

Random Hit Location

RollLocation  RollLocation
3Brain  8-11Torso
4Head  12Far leg
5Far arm  13-14Near/weapon leg
6Hand (roll d6, weapon hand on 1-4)  15-16Foot (roll d6, weapon foot on 1-4)
7Near/weapon arm  17-18Vital organ

Armor & Hit Location
When hit with a cutting weapon, all damage that gets through the target's armor and other DR is increased by 50%, rounded down.
When hit with an impaling weapon, damage that gets through armor and DR is doubled.

Crippling, Knockout, and Stun
HT/2 damage cripples a leg or arm, excess damage is lost.
HT/3 damage cripples a hand or foot, excess damage is lost.
2 damage to an eye blinds it.
Narrow missile weapon hits to an eye may cause a brain hit.
Brain hit does x4 damage, top of head has natural DR 2, roll HT to avoid knockout, stunned even if roll is successful.
Head shot has no DR without a helm or special advantage.
Vital organ hits from impaling weapons that penetrate armor do x2 or x3 damage.

Damage Effects
Stun: If the target takes a single wound that does more than 1/2 his HT, takes a head blow for more than 1/3 his HT, or takes a critical hit, he must roll Will or be at a -4 penalty on all actions the next round.
Knockout: If the target takes HT/2 or more damage to the head, he must roll HT or be knocked unconscious.
Knockback: Blunt, non-impaling attacks may cause knockback equal to 6" per point of damage taken in a single hit, minus 1' per success on a ST check if the target braces before impact. He must roll DX-3 to avoid falling down, or DX if braced.

Damage Penalties
1 to 3 hit points remaining: Move and Dodge scores are halved (round down).
0 or less hit points: incapacitated, roll Will each round or fall unconscious; ST, DX, IQ and PER are halved (round down).
-HT hit points: roll HT or die, roll again for each 5 hit points lost from bleeding.
-5xHT hit points: body is obliterated.

The fatigue cost for fighting is equal to your encumbrance level per round of combat. When you reach 0 fatigue, you are incapacitated and nearly unconscious from exhaustion. Your Strength and Dexterity are effectively halved (round down). Fatigue is recovered at 1 point for every minute of physical rest.

Missed Missile Targets
If a ranged attack is dodged, it is possible that the wrong target is hit. Check the defenses and positions of anyone in the 3 hexes directly behind the target. Roll to hit them with a base skill of 9 for adjacent hexes or 12 for the rear hex.

After the Battle

Bleeding (Optional)
At the end of every minute after battle, the victim rolls against HT, at a -1 penalty for every 5 points of damage he has taken. A failed roll indicates that he bleeds for a loss of 1 hit point. On a critical failure, he bleeds for 2 hit points of damage. A critical success means that bleeding stopped on its own, and no more rolls are required. Bleeding from most wounds stops as soon as any medical skill is successfully used, however the Physician skill must be used if the patient has lost a limb or taken a critical hit to an internal organ.

Healing Skills
The first successful First Aid skill check restores 1 hit point. A critical success restores 2 hit points. It takes 1 minute per point of damage to apply first aid.
The first successful Physician skill check restores 1d6/3 hit points (round up). A critical success restores 3 hit points. It takes 1 minute per point of damage to attend to a patient.
Someone without the First Aid or Physician skills can roll IQ-5 to restore 1 hit point. On a critical failure, they cause 1 hit point of additional damage.

Natural Healing
At the end of each day of rest and decent food, an injured character may roll against his HT. A successful roll results in the recovery of 1 hit point.
A successful Physician skill check adds a +1 bonus to a patient's healing roll for the day. A critical success gives the patient a +2 bonus.
An unconscious character with -1 to -HT hit points will wake up in a number of hours equal to their negative hit points. A character with less health must make a basic HT roll to wake up after the necessary hours have passed. If it fails, the character falls into a coma.
Roll HT for each crippling injury. Success means that the injury will fully heal. Failure means a lasting injury that takes 1d6 extra months to heal. Critical failure means a permanent injury.